nixpulvis

## Fibonacci's Sequence 1467 words written by Nathan Lilienthal

The sequence 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144, 233, 377, 610, 987, 1597, 2584, 4181, 6765, 10946, 17711, 28657, 46368, 75025, 121393, 196418, 317811, 514229, 832040, 1346269, 2178309, 3524578, 5702887, 9227465, 14930352, 24157817, 39088169, 63245986, 102334155, $\ldots$ is given by:

Naturally, the sum of the first $n$ numbers of the sequence can be found rather easily if you know $F_{n+2}$.

### Simplest Recursive Solution, in Racket

Translating the definition of $F_n$ directly into a recursive function yields a working implementation, but it’s not optimized for performance.

(define (fib n)
(cond [(or (= n 0)
(= n 1)) n]
[else (+ (fib (- n 1))
(fib (- n 2)))]))

(map fib '(0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9))
'(0 1 1 2 3 5 8 13 21 34)

; Takes too long...
(fib 100)


### Tail Recursive, in Elixir

Tail calls are often optimized away from the stack, and as a result of the different algorithmic structure, runs much much faster on my machine.

defmodule Math do
def fib(n) do
fib_acc(0, 1, n)
end

def fib_acc(a, b, 0) do a end
def fib_acc(a, b, n) do
fib_acc(b, a+b, n-1)
end
end

Enum.map([0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,  8,  9], &Math.fib/1)
[0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34]

# Very fast.
Math.fib(100)
354224848179261915075

# Still fast.
Math.fib(trunc(1.0e5))
...number too big to display

# Slow again for me...
Math.fib(trunc(1.0e6))


### Iterative, in Rust

Like the tail resursive function, a simple while loop can acomplish the same goal, and this time we’ll use an optimized big number library to allow us to get past $F_{10^5}$.

extern crate num_bigint;
extern crate num_traits;

fn fib(n: BigUint) -> BigUint {
let zero = BigUint::zero();
let one = BigUint::one();
let mut f = (n, zero.clone(), one.clone());
while f.0 > zero {
f = (f.0 - one.clone(), f.2.clone(), f.1 + f.2)
}
return f.1;
}

fn main() {
println!("{}", fib(BigUint::from(13 as u64)));

// Print some big numbers.
println!("{}", fib(BigUint::from(100 as u64)));
println!("{}", fib(BigUint::from(1.0e5 as u64)));

// Careful, while this program will likely work, the output may
// overwhelm the process reading STDOUT.
println!("{}", fib(BigUint::from(1.0e6 as u64)));
}


### Closed Form Solution

A closed form solution can be found and is rather interesting, since $\varphi$ is the golden ratio (a solution to the equation $x^2 - x - 1 = 0$).

Don’t belive it? Calculate any $F_n$ and check, even try $F_{10^{10}}$ yourself:

Input:
n = 10^10,
phi = (1 + sqrt(5))/2,
psi = - 1/phi,
(phi^n - psi^n) / sqrt(5)

Result:


$1.413521976921693 \times 10^{2089876402}$

calculate

mod closed {
pub fn fib(n: f64) -> f64 {
(1.0 / 5f64.sqrt()) * (((1.0 + 5f64.sqrt()) / 2.0).powf(n) -
((1.0 - 5f64.sqrt()) / 2.0).powf(n))
}
}

// This works great, however fails at n = 72.
fn main() {
for n in 0..100 {
assert_eq!(fib(BigUint::from(n as u64)),
BigUint::from(closed::fib(n as f64) as u64),
"testing {}", n);
}
}


Next, we should try and use BigDecimal types and see if we can get past $F_{72}$ without IEEE 754 floats.

### Brainfuck

>++++++++++>+>+[
[+++++[>++++++++<-]>.<++++++[>--------<-]+<<<]>.>>[
[-]<[>+<-]>>[<<+>+>-]<[>+<-[>+<-[>+<-[>+<-[>+<-[>+<-
[>+<-[>+<-[>+<-[>[-]>+>+<<<-[>+<-]]]]]]]]]]]+>>>
]<<<
]
This program doesn't terminate; you will have to kill it.
Credit Daniel B Cristofani (cristofdathevanetdotcom)


If you have Rust installed, you can run and generate the Fibonacci sequence yourself with this brainfuck program.

git clone https://github.com/nixpulvis/brainfuck
cd brainfuck
cargo run fixtures/fib.b

0
1
1
2
3
5
8
13
21
34
55
89
144
233
377
610
987
1597
2584
4181
6765
10946
17711
28657
46368
75025
121393
196418
317811
514229
832040
1346269
2178309
3524578
5702887
9227465
14930352
24157817
39088169
63245986
102334155
165580141
267914296
433494437
701408733
1134903170
1836311903
2971215073
4807526976
7778742049
12586269025
20365011074
32951280099
53316291173
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139583862445
225851433717
365435296162
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1548008755920
2504730781961
4052739537881
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10610209857723
17167680177565
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44945570212853
72723460248141
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2111485077978050
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